In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) is an assisted reproduction technique by which eggs are fertilized with sperm in a laboratory dish (outside the body). When the IVF procedure is successful, the process is combined with a procedure known as embryo transfer, which is used to physically place the embryo in the uterus to achieve a clinical pregnancy.
When is IVF used?
IVF is aprocedure used when there is a very small probability of a sperm fertilizing an egg or when the woman’s fallopian tubes are blocked.
IVF may also assist in male infertility, where there is defect sperm quality, and in such cases intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) may be used, where a sperm cell is injected directly into the egg cell. This is used when sperm have difficulty penetrating the egg, and in these cases the partner’s or a donor’s sperm may be used. ICSI is also used when sperm numbers are very low. ICSI results in success rates equal to those of IVF.
IVF can also be used with egg donation or surrogacy where the woman providing the egg isn’t the same who will carry the pregnancy to term. This means that IVF can be used for females who have already gone through menopause. The donated ovocyte can be fertilized in the IVF lab. If the fertilization is successful, the embryo will be transferred into the uterus, within which it may implant.
* Information has been taken from different online sources. Mostly from www.inser.com.co
The evaluation of the female starts with a pelvic ultrasound. This is a noninvasive method for evaluating the uterus and ovaries by using high frequency sound waves rather than x-rays to show what is inside your body. Ultrasound carries little risk or discomfort while producing clear images that enable the physician to count any mature follicles present and examine the endometrium. Fibroid tumors and ovarian cysts can be diagnosed as well.
Step 1: Monitor and stimulate the development of healthy egg(s) in the ovaries.
There are basically five steps in the IVF and embryo transfer process which include the following: Fertility medications are prescribed to control the timing of the egg ripening and to increase the chance of collecting multiple eggs during one of the woman’s cycles. This is often referred to as ovulation induction. Multiple eggs are desired because some eggs will not develop or fertilize after retrieval. Egg development is monitored using ultrasound to examine the ovaries and urine or blood test samples to check hormone levels.
Step 2 – Collect the eggs
Your eggs (or donor’s eggs) are retrieved through a minor surgical procedure which uses ultrasound imaging to guide a hollow needle through the pelvic cavity. Sedation and local anesthesia are provided to remove any discomfort that you might experience. The eggs are removed from the ovaries using the hollow needle, which is called follicular aspiration. Some women may experience cramping on the day of retrieval, which usually subsides the following day; however, a feeling of fullness or pressure may last for several weeks following the procedure.
Step 3 – Secure the sperm
Sperm, usually obtained by ejaculation is prepared for combining with the eggs.
Step 4 – Fertilization
Combine the eggs and sperm together in the laboratory and provide the appropriate environment for fertilization and early embryo growth
Step 5 – Transfer embryos into the uterus
The embryos are usually transferred into the woman’s uterus anywhere from one to six days later, but most commonly it occurs between two to three days following egg retrieval. At this point, the fertilized egg has divided to become a two-to-ten cell embryo. The transfer process involves a speculum which is inserted into the vagina to expose the cervix. A predetermined number of embryos are suspended in fluid and gently placed through a catheter into the womb. This process is often guided by ultrasound. The procedure is usually painless, but some women experience mild cramping.
These aforementioned steps are followed by rest and watching for early pregnancy symptoms. A blood test and potentially an ultrasound will be used to determine if implantation and pregnancy has occurred.
It is FlyClinic®´s concern to provide you comprehensive information about the treatment you want to choose, as well as important facts about the safety and risks of the procedure you selected.
Pregnancy likely probability of a pregnancy with an IVF cycle varies between 10% and 60%, depending on factors such as age of women, duration of infertility, and the cause of infertility. The women of the age may be the single most influential factor for the ovarian reserve decreases dramatically after 35 years of age. The probability of getting pregnant at 40 years of age may be less than that of a young woman.